from green to brown beans                            

First the beans are roasted in the coffee factory. The green coffee beans are heated in large, rotating drums using temperatures of about 290 C. The tumbling motion of the drums keeps the beans from burning. A little bit roasted beans become light (morning) coffee; medium roast is for filter coffee and from dark roast espresso is made.

The row beans (before roasting) are hard and green. After about 8 minutes, the beans "pop" and double in size. The beans have then reached about 400 F (204 C) and begin to brown as the oils within them start to emerge. This oil is called coffee essence or caffeol. The chemical reaction of the heat and coffee essence is called pyrolysis, and is what produces the flavor and aroma of coffee. A second "pop" occurs about three to five minutes later and signals that the bean is fully roasted.

LIGHT ROAST (7 minutes): Cinnamon roast: A light cinnamon color, a taste like haselnut and a high acid %; good for SILVER filter coffee in supermarkets.

MEDIUM ROAST (9-11 minutes): City roast:  A chastnut color, caramel like taste; good for RED filter coffee in supermarkets.

DARK ROAST (12-13 minutes): Viennese/French roast: A little bit oily on the surface, a chocolate color;  good for GOLD filter coffee in supermarkets.  

VERY DARK ROAST (14 minutes): Espresso roast: Dark brown,  oily on the surface, a stong aroma and flavor; now foam starts rising from the beans and the the sugar from inside the beans starts burning.  

Before and After: Green (left) and roasted coffee beans (right)

Coffee roasting is something of an art. Roastmasters use sound, sight and smell to determine when the beans are roasted to perfection. Timing is everything. Roasting time affects the color and flavor of the final brew, so the length of the roasting period depends on the type of coffee desired.

Dark roasted coffees actually have LESS caffeine than medium roasts? The longer a coffee is roasted, the more caffeine burns off during the process.


     Coffee grinding:

The whole point of grinding coffee is to get the most flavor out of the bean. To ensure the best-tasting coffee, buy the beans of your choice and grind them yourself just before brewing. Coffee grinders are inexpensive, widely available machines.

The way and time of grinding depends on the type of coffee:

for FRENCH PRESS big grains, FILTRE finer and  ESPRESSO and TURKISH COFFEE very fine.

Generally, the faster the brew time, the finer the coffee grind. Espresso, which is brewed in about 25 seconds, has a very fine grind, almost like powdered sugar. A coffee press takes about four minutes and uses a coarser grind than espresso. American drip coffee is coarser still -- it can take anywhere from five to ten minutes to brew coffee using a standard coffee maker.

The best way to keep coffee is to leave as beans.

Decaffeinated coffee is made by washing the caffeine out of beans in one of two ways, both done before roasting. In one method, a chemical solvent is used to extract the caffeine. The solvent is completely washed out before the bean is dried. The second method uses water to steam the beans, and then the outer layers, rich in caffeine, are scraped way. There is one naturally decaffeinated coffee: the Madagascar beans.

INSTANT or solluble coffee:

Let me first explain how this kind of coffee is made:  Instant Coffee (Granuline Coffee) is an in water dissolving drink. You could say this kind of coffee is the dried version of a ready made cup of coffee; so first the beans (normally only the lower quality is used) are grinded  and a very large cup of filter coffee is brewed, and this coffee is dried.

When the coffee is dried quickly by cold air it is called FD (dry freeze)  and when it is dried with warm air it is cold classic.

Dutch coffee concentrate / Cold Water Method
Mix coffee and water in a glass and let soak for 12 to 24 hours according to what strength you would like. Use cheesecloth to line a funnel and set the funnel inside a glass jar. Pour coffee and water mixture through the funnel. Let it drain completely. Cover the mixture and refrigerate.